TOEFL Writing Studying 2

 donstudio   2021-07-22 18:14   204 人阅读  0 条评论

文章的谋篇布局

一篇文章包括三个部分:开头,主体 (Main body =[Point 1…+ Point 2…+ Point 3…] ) 和结尾

………………Sample Essay…………………

Topic : Some people believe that a city should destroy its old historic buildings and replace them with modern ones. Others ,myslef included, have an opposite opinion.

Thesis: I advocate that a city should try to preserve its old, historic buildings. There are three primary reasons as follows.

Main Body : First of all, historic buildings are symbols of cities. Without these historic buildings, a lot of cities would lose their cultural image or even their identity. In fact, a historic building not only is the symbol of a city, but also represents the culture of a country. For example, people associate the Statue of Liberty with democracy of the United States, understand the long history of China from the Great wall, and know the innovative artistry of France from the Eiffel Tower. Without these historic buildings, cities, and even countries, would be overshadowed.

In addition, historic buildings serve as an important resource for historic education. For instance, the Forbidden City is one of the most visited historic buildings in china. Not only are people impressed by its traditional architecture, but also gain rich knowledge about the lifestyle of ancient Chinese emperors in the Ming and Tsing Dynasties.

What is more, historic buildings benefit the tourism industry. Lushan, one of China's mountains, attracts millions of visitors every year. Not only its natural scenic beauty, but also its abundant historical relics, such as Jiang Jieshi’s villa, makes this mountain a remarkable heritage. These historic buildings continually attract visitors.

Conclusion [ Transitional world + Thesis ]

In summary, old, historic buildings indeed play a vital role in symbolic significance representation, historical education and as a tourism resource of a city. Preserving these buildings is necessary.

………………Sample Essay…………………

Historic Buliding protect

开头段落

“倒三角”结构,开头就是把主体从笼统向具体推进的过程。

I 摆现象 ,开头先摆出社会现象,然后对此提出自己的看法, 公示:现象+中心论点

常用词汇: 争论 debate/dispute/controversy ; 热门的 heated/focused ; 引起注意的 be brought into attention /be in the limelight ; 面临问题 confront/ be faced with problems

精选句型:

* Nowadays, … is a topic of public interest and concern.

* At prsent, the problem of … is now in the limelight.

* Recent days , there is a heated debate about……

* Recently , this phenomenon of … has loomed up wide public concern.

文章应用:

Do you agree or disagree: Governments should focus more on preservation of environment rather than economic development.

sample1:   如何在建设中保护环境

At present, the problem of protecting the environment in the course of economic development is now in the limelight. No time in history has the issue become more prominent in than it is now, and we are faced with the problems of air pollution, forest disappearance and desert enlarging.

II 摆正反观点,先陈述人们对某一问题的不同看法,然后提出作者对此问题的看法。公式:正反双方观点+作者观点

常用词汇: 反对:oppose/challenge 主张:advocate/endorse/set forth

精选句型:

* Some people advocate that  … ,while opponents suggest that…. As far as I am concerned,…

* The question of … is one that has concerned many people. It is held by some people that  …  Meanwhile, there is an equally good argument that …  From my perspective, …

Sample : 知识是从书本获得的还是从实践获得的

The question of whether knowledge is gained from experience or books is one that has concerned many people. It is held by some people that  everything learned is derived from books. Meanwhile, there is an equally good argument that all knowledge is accumulated from experience. From my perspective, books can provide us more to learn.

III 引人入胜法:突出趣味性 (interesting),引语= 谚语  公式:引语+作者观点/(各方观点+作者观点)

常用词汇: 谚语 Proverb , 俗语 (old) saying

精选句型:

* There is an old saying which goes that…

* There is a profound proverb which goes that…

Sample : 找工作   Hunt for a job  / seek one's future career

There is a profound saying which goes that two heads are better than one. In the process of hunting for a job, we should always remember to talk with parents, teachers and headmasters or anyone we trust, all of whom possess rich and invaluable experience and knowledge from which we sure to benefit when we seek our future career.

主体段落

主体部分的整体结构: 三段式和两段式

三段式("一根筋"):先表明自己的观点,然后用三个正向的观点去支持这一观点。

两段式 (“两边倒”)分析在两种不同情况下,需要有两种不同方案解决问题。

主体各段的结构:Topic Sentence + Supporting details

I 主题句写作 :

i.  要使主题句具体化、方向化。

* Online games are harmful for one's personal growth.

* Water plays a cirtical role in the development of human beings' civilization .

* Commercials often allure people to buy things they do not need.

ii. 注意运用如 many , a few ,several ,various , a series of 等。

*  Now various kinds of luxury products are available in china.

* The  government is trying a series of (approache /methods/ means / ways ) to discourage people from taking drugs.

Sample : Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?   Business should do anything they can to make a profit.

-------------------Disagree------------------

The most important thing that business need to realize is that they have to give priority to the rights of the customers.

Equally important, the benefits of the employees must be respected.

Business ought to pay careful attention to the quality of nature environment.

II 支持性细节

引出例子的常用表达 :

词组 :for instance, to illustrate,  as an illustration,

句式 :A case in point is…… ,  A/another good example of this is…, We may take …. , ______ , for example. We can cite/quote…. , ____, as an illustration.

名人事例 :奋斗带来成功  - Ban Ki-moon(潘基文), 乔丹 Jordon

学术范例 :环境问题的 ,墨西哥湾漏油事件,全球变暖

名人案例 Sample : Some famous athletes and entertainers earn millions of dollars every year.   Do you think they deserve that high salary?

In the first place, famous entertainers or athletes are more talented than common people. Their high incomes are rewards for their talents. We may take Yao Ming, a Chinese NBA superstar, for example. It was reported that Yao made nearly 20 million dollars in 2006.  Why could Yao get such a high salary? It is because Yao has huge talents. With a height of  2.26 meters, Yao is considered one of the most powerful centre forwards of the NBA. That is to say, he is the best player and he deserves the best salary.

疑问是拓展细节的有效途径

名人案例 Sample :Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?   Renewable resources of energy (sun, wind, water) will soon replace resources of fossil fuels (gas, oil and coal).

中心论点: 同意,会替代! 因为:替代,有利于人类的生存和发展。

 ① 化石燃料破坏环境   ② 化石燃料逐渐枯竭  ③ 化石燃料的使用导致很多社会问题。

The using of fossil fuels has damaged the environment and threatened human beings’ existence.   A good example of this is coal, the most popular energy resource. When coal is burned as fuel, it gives off carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas that is linked with global warming. An increase in world temperatures causes broad changes, including worldwide sea level rise. It also results in some extreme weather events, such as flood and drought.

Besides,Burning coal also produces emissions, such as sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NO), when they combines with moisture, it will produce acid rain that can damage forest and pollute water.

拆分法 :以人们习惯或公认的标准作为分类的依据 ,从不同的角度进行剖析

汽车工业的迅速发展导致很多问题:

1. 人类的健康问题 ; 2 . 国际争端甚至战争  3 . 化石燃料短缺问题

With the rapid expansion of modern automobile industry, many significant problems have surfaced.

Car and truck exhausts pollute the air in metropolitan areas around the world and thus create serious human health problems.

The continued use of fossil fuel engines and the great demand of oil have led to plenty of international disputes and even wars, particularly in the oil rich region of the middle east.

As the powerful automobile industry remains reluctant and has yet to successfully promote an engine type that does not rely on gasoline power, the problem of fossil fuel shortage will become an even more serious problem.

Sample: Do you prefer to live in a big city or a small city?

First and foremost, compared with small towns, big cities can offer more job opportunities.

A case in point is Guangzhou. There are thousands of companies, including modern and international companies such as P&G, TCL, and so on. These enterprises need a great many managerial talent and workers. Besides, there are also a great many chances for people to start their own business. consequently, Millions of positions can be offered to residents living or working in  Guangzhou. Therefore, city residents can enjoy more job opportunities than those who live in the small towns.

结尾段落

一定要使用过渡性连词,一定要再现 中心论点 ,一定要 总结 分论点。

词组:all in all, in brief; to summarize, in summary; to conclude, in conclusion;

句式:

* Taking above mentioned into consideration,  an unshakable conclusion could be safely drawn that …

* Balancing the advantages and disadvantages / positive effects and negative effects of …

* Weighing the pros and cons of the argument …

I  正面总结

Why do you think people attend college or university?

结尾段落 :In summary ,I intend to stand on the side that students go to institutes of higher learning for three reasons. Some of them aim to learn knowledge and skills; some plan on finding their future husbands or wives; and for most of them, going to colleges or universities can help them grow up. No matter what their purposes are, they will learn something from their colleges or universities.

格式 :In summary,  我赞成(文章中心论点)for three reasons.  Firstly,… Secondly, … Thirdly  …

II 建议式

Some people believe that the Earth is being harmed (damaged) by human activity. Others feel that human activity makes the Earth a better place to live. What is your opinion?  
 In brief, human activity has had harmful impacts on the Earth. For instance, human beings caused the global warming, the acid rain, and deforestation.  Human beings should take these problems seriously and try to resolve them to ensure their sustainable development and interests in the long run.

备用句型: Human beings should take these problems seriously and try to resolve them to ensure…  

表达解决问题的替代方法:(address/tackle/overcome) the problem

III 展望式

* Looking further ahead, we can say (with full confidence/with certainty )that…

--Looking further ahead, we can say with full confidence that China will raise its economic and social development to a new level in spite of the current difficulties.

* Through/by + doing…, we will be able to …  

--Through waiting and hoping, we will be able to achieve our ultimate goal.

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