TOEFL Writing Studying - Sentence

 donstudio   2021-11-07 18:21   123 人阅读  0 条评论

基础经典句型

(一) 如此……以至于  so +adj.+be +主词+that +句子

So valuable is water resource that we should protect it.

So expensive is the fee of international tour that many people can not afford it.

(二)不可否认的是  There is no denying that…      It is an undeniable fact that…

There is no denying that South American countires make great contributions to the development of human beings' civilization.

It is an undeniable fact that the information technology industry has provided a substantial source of income for many conntries.

(三)…的主要原因是…   the main (major /primary) cause /reason of … lies in…

The main cause fo species extinction actually lies in the urbanization.

The primary cause of racial discrimination actually lies in the human nature.

(四)A 对B 产生某种影响    A has (have) an impact (effect/influence)  on B

好的影响 A has (have) beneficial/positive/favorable  effect (impact/influence) on B

Exercise has great beneficial impact on depression.

坏的影响 A has (have) harmful/negative/detrimental impact (effect/influence)  on B

Gambling has a negative impact on our society.

(五)全世界都知道… It is universally acknowledged that…

It is universally acknowledge that "where there is a will, there is a way."

(六)…一定会…    主语 + will never fail to… (双重否定句)

Human beings will never fail to achieve greater success in science and technology !

(七)…的优点是…    An advantage of … is that+ 句子

An advantage of eating an apple a day is that can help you to keep fit.

An advantage of using the solar energy is that it will not create (produce) any pollution.

(八)…对…造成很大威胁/影响…     …pose a great threat /effect to

Terrorism poses a great threat to the peace of the world.

The sand storm poses a great threat to our existance.

(九)…问题正变的越来越严重   The problem of …is becoming increasingly severe(grave/serious)

The problem of froest disappearance is becoming increasing severe.

(十)A is an indispensable part of B    

Mobile phone has been an indispensable part of our life, and it has been exerting profound influence on the way we work and play.

句子的变化

-- 句子开头的变化

This lecture will be firmly rooted in my mind. (代词)

Discussions led Bush and me to the conclusion.(名词)

Ceaseless  efforts on the part of me are certainly required.(形容词)

According to my investigation, an increasing number of people prefer to stay at home and surf the internet. (介词)

I 用名词开头

We almost forget the 9.11 tragedy.

The 9.11 tragedy had almost been faded in our memory.

Many people are complaining China's extensive shortage of energy.

China's extensive shortage of energy is the source of great complaint.

We are getting more and more workloads in this rapid-paced world.

The rapid-paced world has always been imposing increasing workloads on us.

People often discuss the possiblity that renewable resources will replace the fossil fuels.(人们经常讨论可再生能源代替化石燃料的可能性.)

Discussions spring up as to the possibility that renewable resources will replace the fossil fuels.

II 用介词开头 

用for, despite, from,  under, besides, with, without, 等介词开头,是使句子生动变化的一种手段。 

*  For people who…  “对于…人来说”   

For the majority of people who have already retired, reading has become the source of happiness in their life.

For people who want to adopt a healthy and meaningful life style, it is important to find time to learn certain new knowledge.

*“With +动词的名词形式”   

   当句中一个动作是另外一个动作发生的前提,可以用“with + 动词的名词形式”表示这个前提。

With the develoment of urbanization many villages are becoming increasing crowed.

With the rapid growth of population,the amount of materials used has increasing at an alarming rate.

* "Without + 名词"  

Without one hundred percent hard work, achieving success is impossible.

Without historic buildings, a lot of cities lose their culture image or even dentity.

-- 句子的结构变化

I 比较结构句

* 句式1: just as …, so …      (比较相似性)

Just as water is indispensable to fish, so is steal to the development of car industry.

正如水是鱼儿不可缺少的依赖一样,钢铁也是汽车产业发展不可缺少的。

* 句式2: … and … share…in common(比较相同点) 

Except  differences on political problems, China and the U.S.A. share many interests in common in the foreign trade area.

抛开在政治问题方面的分歧,中美双方在外贸方面有着许多共同的利益。

* 句式3: The differences between …  and  …  lie in …  (比较不同点)

The differences between the Chinese youth and Japanese youth lie in their cultures and personalities.

中日两国年轻人的不同在于文化和性格的不同。

The greatest difference between a man who succeeds and one who does not lies in the way each treats opportunities.

成功者和失败者最大的不同就在于他们对待机会的方式。

II 倒装句

倒装句的作用:* 强调   * 承上启下  * 制造悬念

* 否定词/词组 位于句首,主谓倒装

a ) 常用否定词: Rarely, scarcely, seldom, hardly, few 

Rarely will a horror movie frighten me any more.

Seldom will a chemical factory be established without polluting the living space of our city's inhabitants.

化工厂会污染城市居民的生活环境.

b) 常用否定词组: on no account, at no time, in no place

On no account should we admire those politicians blindly.

我们决不应当盲目崇拜那些政客.

At no time has our contry been more prosperous than at present.

我们的国家从未像现在一样繁荣过。

-- 句子长短的变化(句子的扩充)

* “句子扩充”方法1: 拆分

方法:对前文中的一个词进行方面展开。

常用词汇: 1. including    2. such as 

1.  including

玩网络游戏是时下最流行的娱乐方式,玩家往往来自不同年龄段的人群。 包括,儿童,青少年,成年人,甚至是老年人。

Playing on line games is one of the most popular entertainments shared by people of different ages, including children, teenagers, adults or even the old generation. 

广告常常通过各种媒体宣传一个产品或者服务的质量。包括,电视、电台、报纸、杂志等等。 

Advertising refers to presenting information relating to a product or service by a variety of media, including television, radio, newspapers, magazines and so forth.

过度工作可能导致许多健康问题包括,头痛,焦虑,深度疲劳,以及其他职业病。 

Overworking is linked to lots of  adverse health effects, including headaches anxiety, profound fatigue and many other occupational diseases . 

④人们普遍认为电影可以反映一个国家人们生活的方方面面包括 服装、语言、礼节。 

   It is generally believed that movies can reflect people's way of life in a country, including dresses, languages, and manners. 

2. such as

① 对于开车的人来说,一边驾驶一边听收音机是获取最新信息(例如新闻、天气预报、股市信息等等)的一种有效方式。

To car users, listening to the radio while driving is an effective means of gaining the latest information, such as  news, weather forecast, stock market and so forth. 

② 过度使用能源的最终后果是环境问题都会变得更加严重。    比如酸雨、温室效应、水土流失。

The net result of excessive energy use is that environment problems will become more serious , such as  acid rain, the greenhouse effect, and soil erosion. 

③ 不可否认的是,大部分影响自然环境的问题都是经济发展的副产物。诸如臭氧层的破坏,森林的砍伐,物种的灭绝.

It cannot be denied that most of the problems affecting the natural world such as ozone depletion, deforestations, and species extinction, are by-products of economic growth. 

* “句子扩充”方法2:  加并列名词

①在一个社会里,时尚会随着年龄而显著地变化。  社会阶层、职业、地理位置

Fashions may vary significantly within a society according to age, social class, occupation and location. 

②我认为政府应当颁布法律禁止任何种族的歧视。 性别、年龄、和残疾

I am convinced that the government should bring forward legislations to outlaw the discrimination of race, gender, age and disability. 

③ 年轻人更容易适应一个新的国家,因为他们的想法、都不是那么固定。信念和个性

Young people can adapt to a new country more easily because they have less fixed ideas, beliefs and personalities. 

④自尊是一个人一生不断成功所需要的因素。自信,自制 

Self-esteem,self-confidence and self-discipline are all elements that required for one to succeed throughout life. 

⑤ 种族矛盾是一个多民族社会必定要处理的问题。文化多元性和宗教差异

Ethnic tension,cultural diversity and religious differences are those issues that a multi-ethnic society has to address. 

* “句子扩充”方法3:  加定于从句

对前文当中的一个词进行解释

The International Red Cross is an organization. 

The International Red Cross is an organization whose purpose is to help the sick and the needy.

Nanjing is a capital city.

Nanjing is an attractive place, 

Several important kings in Chinese history built their palaces in Nanjing. 

Nanjing is a capital city, which is an attractive place, in which several important kings in Chinese history built their palaces.

三句变一句

TV is one of the most pervasive modern technologies. 

TV has entered people's lives several decades ago.

TV has great impact on both our life-style and our thought. 

TV, one of the most pervasive modern technologies, which has entered people's lives several decades ago, has great impact on both our life-style and our thought. 

四句变一句

A recent newspaper report states that today's students are “more materialistic and less altruistic”. 

But in the past they did not behave like this. 

The report is based on a survey. 

The survey is conducted annually among college freshmen.

A recent newspaper report which is based on a survey conducted annually among college freshmen states that today's students are “more materialistic and less altruistic” than at any other time. 

USA University of Texas

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